Biodiversity Canada Sask.
Biodiversity 2
Living Fossil??
Identification, Taxonomy papers
Environmental Laws, Canada
Species of Concern
Oldman Dam Alberta
Alberta Update 2010
Saskatchewan Update
Saskatchewan River
Aquatic Insects
Oregon Winter Ponds
Oregon Rivers Intro
Willamette River
Columbia River
Missouri River
China Yangtze River
Arctic Canada, Rankin
MacKenzie River Canada
Fish- Rivers
Teaching Materials

Here I will give various pages form Boyd (2003).  I have not searched for updates to the laws.

Endangered species- Species at Risk Act- "no mechanism to allow the public to enforce the law when the government is unwilling or unable to do so." ---"modest improvement over the status quo of not having any legislation"  - "weaker than either US or Mexican endangered species laws"---

Boyd, Endangered Species.pdf


Environmental laws in Canada, see pdf below:


"most basic, rudimentary laws enacted by other nations are still absent in Canada-

"no enforcable national water quality standards-

"no law to protect wild and scenic rivers-

"no laws allowing citizens access to information-

"no law to protect wilderness areas-

"laws fail to reflect contemporary scientific principles-

"laws are undermined by excessive discretion-

"public has insufficient opportunity to participate-

Boyd Systemic Weaknesses River.pdf

See Boyd, eg p.45, for the complex web invovling fisheries, forestry, dams, etc and difficulty of regulation based on split or shared Federal and Provincial jurisdiction , often leading to the result that the environment loses, development wins- as an example-no setback for clearcut logging, destroying small streams, based on the fact that small streams contain no commercial fish, and thus Federal laws do not apply, but Provincial laws do apply- thus leaving small streams unprotected. 

See also Oldman River Dam

See also: ( Canada asked to "review failure to enforce")

and below:  (Provincial and Federal "bits and pieces of legislation", Ligislation stalled in Parliament, fate uncertain)