Biodiversity Canada Sask.
Biodiversity 2
Living Fossil??
Identification, Taxonomy papers
Environmental Laws, Canada
Species of Concern
Oldman Dam Alberta
Alberta Update 2010
Saskatchewan Update
Saskatchewan River
Saskatchewan River Detail Descriptive
Background Concepts of River Ecology
 Communities, species, origins, distribution
 Rare and Endangered Accounts
Additional species of interest
Current status and conditions
Mystery of St. Louis 06
The River at Saskatoon
Lemsford Ferry
Communities Natural and Altered River
Dams,Research Thermal
 Research Nutrients and Eutrophication
Blackfly Research
undisturbed sites, a comparison
Aquatic Insects
Oregon Winter Ponds
Oregon Rivers Intro
Willamette River
Columbia River
Missouri River
China Yangtze River
Arctic Canada, Rankin
MacKenzie River Canada
Fish- Rivers
Teaching Materials


Slideshow pdf of our research on Blackfly Control, Keys to species below:

blackfly project.pdf


       Blood-feeding blackfly adults are among the most serious pests in the world, spreading serious human diseases (Merritt and Cummins 1996) and killing livestock by toxemia.  They also feed on a great variety of wild hosts.   Larvae require flowing water where they filter food from the passing current with unique  fans while they are attached by silk and hooklets at the tip of  the abdomen to clean stones or plants.

      Fredeen (1981,1985) spent many years studying the biology and control of prairie blackflies, and Jarvis (1987) recently studied the biology of blackflies in the river.  The following is from Fredeen and Jarvis.   One hundred fifty species are known from North America.  Six genera and 31 species are recorded from Saskatchewan, many being restricted to the northern Boreal., and the prairie flowing water fauna include 15 species from the Saskatchewan River system.  These are  Ectemnia taeniatifrons (Enderlein) (feeds on mammals) , Metacnephia saskatchewana Shewell and Fredeen, and many  mammalophic species  of Simulium, some of which are serious  livestock pests ., these being  Simulium arcticum Mallokc (seius pest of livestock) ,  S.  bivitattum Malloch, S. decorum Walker, S.  duplex Shewell and Fredeen, S. euryandminiculum Davies (feeds on birds),   S. griseum Coquillet, S. luggeri  Nicholson (serious pest of livestock),   S. meridionale Riley, S rugglesi  Nicholson and Mickel,  S. tuberosum (Lundstroem), S. venustum Say, S. vittatum Zetterstedt,  and S. verecundum Stone.


Below: Blackfly larval keys and species accounts from Fredeen 1981, Quaest. Ent, 17:189-210:


1. Below, larval keys, Figures3. Below, species accounts continued

blackfly larva key Fredeen 1 0001.pdf

blackfly larvae key Fredeen 30001.pdf
2. Below, end larval keys, species accounts4. Below species accounts cont., River changes.

blackfly larva key Fredeen2 0001.pdf

blackfly larva key Fredeen 40001.pdf


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Below, University News, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.  August 1987. ** Blackfly control best in a quarter of a centrury, Lehmkuhl and his students credited by Saskatchewan Agriculture, new method of monitoring and control developed, blackflies virtually non-existant this year**

* See pdf below:



Blackfly Success University News Lehmkuhl0001.pdf

Repeat- Blackfly research and control in the Saskatchewan River, slide show:


blackfly project.pdf